Hey everyone! Today we will talk about OCD. Are you struggling with this disorder? Our quiz will help you figure it out. Answer twenty questions to find out!
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental and behavioral disorder in which an individual has intrusive thoughts and/or feels the need to perform certain routines repeatedly to the extent where it induces distress or impairs general function. As indicated by the disorder’s name, the primary symptoms of OCD are obsessions and compulsions. Obsessions are persistent unwanted thoughts, mental images, or urges that generate feelings of anxiety, disgust, or discomfort. Common obsessions include fear of contamination, obsession with symmetry, and intrusive thoughts about religion, sex, and harm. Compulsions are repeated actions or routines that occur in response to obsessions. Common compulsions include excessive hand washing, cleaning, arranging things, counting, seeking reassurance, and checking things. Many adults with OCD are aware that their compulsions do not make sense, but they perform them anyway to relieve the distress caused by obsessions. Compulsions occur so often, typically taking up at least one hour per day, that they impair one’s quality of life.
The cause of OCD is unknown. There appear to be some genetic components, and it is more likely for both identical twins to be affected than both fraternal twins. Risk factors include a history of child abuse or other stress-inducing events; some cases have occurred after streptococcal infections. Diagnosis is based on presented symptoms and requires ruling out other drug-related or medical causes; rating scales such as the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) assess severity. Other disorders with similar symptoms include generalized anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder, eating disorders, tic disorders, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. The condition is also associated with a general increase in suicidality.
Treatment for OCD may involve psychotherapy such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), pharmacotherapy such as antidepressants, or surgical procedures such as deep brain stimulation. CBT increases exposure to obsessions and prevents compulsions, while metacognitive therapy encourages ritual behaviors to alter the relationship to one’s thoughts about them. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a common antidepressant used to treat OCD. SSRIs are more effective when used more than the recommended depression dosage; however, higher doses can increase side effect intensity. Commonly used SSRIs include sertraline, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, citalopram, and escitalopram. Some patients fail to improve after taking the maximum tolerated dose of multiple SSRIs for at least two months; these cases qualify as treatment-resistant and require second-line treatment such as clomipramine or atypical antipsychotic augmentation. Surgery may be used as a final resort in the most severe or treatment-resistant cases, though most procedures are considered experimental due to the limited literature on their side effects. Without treatment, OCD often lasts decades.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder affects about 2.3% of people at some point in their lives, while rates during any given year are about 1.2%. It is unusual for symptoms to begin after age 35, and around 50% of patients experience detrimental effects on daily life before age 20. Males and females are affected equally, and OCD occurs worldwide. The phrase obsessive-compulsive is sometimes used in an informal manner unrelated to OCD to describe someone as excessively meticulous, perfectionistic, absorbed, or otherwise fixated.
OCD can present with a wide variety of symptoms. Certain groups of symptoms usually occur together; these groups are sometimes viewed as dimensions, or clusters, which may reflect an underlying process. The standard assessment tool for OCD, the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), has 13 predefined categories of symptoms. These symptoms fit into three to five groupings. A meta-analytic review of symptom structures found a four-factor grouping structure to be most reliable: a symmetry factor, a forbidden thoughts factor, a cleaning factor, and a hoarding factor. The symmetry factor correlates highly with obsessions related to ordering, counting, and symmetry, as well as repeating compulsions. The forbidden thoughts factor correlates highly with intrusive and distressing thoughts of a violent, religious, or sexual nature. The cleaning factor correlates highly with obsessions about contamination and compulsions related to cleaning. The hoarding factor only involves hoarding-related obsessions and compulsions and was identified as being distinct from other symptom groupings.
Some OCD subtypes have been associated with improvement in performance on certain tasks, such as pattern recognition (washing subtype) and spatial working memory (obsessive thought subtype). Subgroups have also been distinguished by neuroimaging findings and treatment responses. Neuroimaging studies on this have been too few, and the subtypes examined have differed too much to draw any conclusions. On the other hand, subtype dependent treatment response has been studied, and the hoarding subtype has consistently responded least to treatment.
While OCD is considered a homogeneous disorder from a neuropsychological perspective, many of the symptoms may be the result of comorbid disorders. For example, adults with OCD have exhibited more symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) than adults without OCD.
Do your symptoms indicate OCD? Have you ever wondered about it? Answer twenty questions in this quiz and see if your doubts have any real basis.
How many questions are there?
There are 20 questions.
What can you get as a result?
According to your answers, you can get a score that will tell you if it’s possible that you may be struggling with OCD or not.
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